Protect your Raspberry PI SD card, use Read-Only filesystem

Today I decided to protect all my Raspberry Pi SD cards from unproper shutdown and also prevent SD card premature end of life. This means protect them from power outage or just unplugging the power while the Pi is running.

Edit :
April 2016 to works on Jessie and Raspberry PI 3
January 2017 Fix SSH access problem after reboot / moved resolv.conf to tmpfs

Why ?

Most of the time you won’t see or have any incidences when the shutdown is not clean, but depending on what is doing the Pi at this time, you can start to have unpredictable results or data corruption. Also, sometime, applications have really verbose logging and continuously writing log to the SD will for sure bring it to death quicker than expected. SD corruption is not really simple to detect, because sometime it works and sometimes Pi is crashing/blocking and you don’t know why. You have these “hazardous” problems until you decide to change the SD. the worst, is that you were just thinking you done something wrong and searched what you done wrong ? Get time, in doubt, change your SD card first. This is my own experience and as today, I’m on 3 dead SD card.

How ?

Well, the 1st thing I’ve done was to set some folder into temp file system (log file for example) and write the log files to the SD only every hour (a example). It’s working fine but  I wanted to go deeper and have more protection, so searched over Internet people doing with read-only filesystem. I found lot of interesting article with different methods and decided to start with this one from k3a, really thanks to him.

Requirement, do it or not ?

Using a read-only file system is mostly used for Pi working 24H/7 a day and with console mode only, so if you’re using X11 or graphic interface, I won’t recommend this method because it won’t work. May be there are some other but it’s not on this article scope. So when you want you’re Pi in read-only mode it’s acting like a server but some server applications are not compatible with read only file system. Mainly database.

So if you’re running a database on your Pi, don’t use read-only filesystem. May be again there are some specific build or database to minimize write to SD, but once again it’s not in today’s scope. I see more and more people using mySQL database on Pi claiming it works fine. Sure it works, until you’ll start to face on SD corruption, and I hope they all have a good backup, because we know all, admins always have backup ;).

May be I’m the only one claiming that except if you change only few data a day, you shouldn’t use a RPi as a 24/7 database engine. For a pretty rock solid database, use a clouded one or one on a NAS like a Synology with redundant hard disk. It will go so much faster and you’ll get a real reliability. More over you will be able to use your Pi to do action and manage this database, just host your database elsewhere, just my 2 cents.

Let’s do it

Okay, I’ve done nothing yet, I’m writing this article while setting my Ambilight hyperion Rpi in read only mode and following the K3A article. You need to connect to your Pi with ssh to run the following commands, I’m connecting as root so you won’t see any sudo command (I know, I’m a bad boy!)

Get to latest current version

 apt-get update; apt-get upgrade

Reboot in case of bootloader or kernel version change


Wait for reboot and connect back with SSH.

Remove unwanted package and services files

The original article removed cron and fake-hwclock, I decided to let it working assuming my Pi will have the correct date (I never had a problem with date) and also have a date at bootup that is more the last known than 1970 year. fake-hwclock will be written at logout and every day

apt-get remove --purge wolfram-engine triggerhappy anacron logrotate dphys-swapfile xserver-common lightdm
insserv -r x11-common; apt-get autoremove --purge

Replace log management with busybox one

apt-get install busybox-syslogd; dpkg --purge rsyslog

This will put log into circular memory buffer, you will able to see log using



Disable swap and filesystem check and set it to read-only.

edit the file


and add the three words

fastboot noswap ro

at the end of the line

mine were (your can be different depending on several options) :

dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait

and now looks like :

dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait fastboot noswap ro

Move some system files to temp filesystem

rm -rf /var/lib/dhcp/ /var/lib/dhcpcd5 /var/run /var/spool /var/lock /etc/resolv.conf
ln -s /tmp /var/lib/dhcp
ln -s /tmp /var/lib/dhcpcd5
ln -s /tmp /var/run
ln -s /tmp /var/spool
ln -s /tmp /var/lock
touch /tmp/dhcpcd.resolv.conf; ln -s /tmp/dhcpcd.resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf

On Raspberry PI 3, move some lock file to temp Files System

Thanks to @harlock for the trick

nano /etc/systemd/system/dhcpcd5

and be sure to change the line with




Full file should now looks something like that (on my Jessie Lite on RPI3).

Description=dhcpcd on all interfaces

ExecStart=/sbin/dhcpcd -q -b
ExecStop=/sbin/dhcpcd -x


On Debian jessie move random-seed  file to writable location

remove existing file

rm /var/lib/systemd/random-seed

link the random-seed file to tmpfs location

ln -s /tmp/random-seed /var/lib/systemd/random-seed

Since file is on tmpfs it will not be created upon, reboot, but we can do it with a kind of magic of systemd system service, this is so powerfull.

To create file on the tmp area at bootup before starting random-seed service, just edit the file service file to add a pre-command to execute :

nano /lib/systemd/system/systemd-random-seed.service

add the line  ExecStartPre=/bin/echo “” >/tmp/random-seed  under service section, should now looks like this

ExecStartPre=/bin/echo "" >/tmp/random-seed
ExecStart=/lib/systemd/systemd-random-seed load
ExecStop=/lib/systemd/systemd-random-seed save

Do not use touch instead of echo, it won’t work because checking RO filesystem

Execute following to tell systemd we made changes

 systemctl daemon-reload

Setup the Internet clock sync

I think this one is not needed because on new Raspbian version, the ntp daemon already do the job, but just in case

apt-get install ntp

and be sure to configure your time zone, with raspi-config tool


then go to menu “Internationalisation Options”  then “Change Timezone” and select your time zone.

Edit the hourly cron script that save clock every hour


and change it to allow saving clock. It sould become

# Simple cron script - save the current clock periodically in case of
# a power failure or other crash

if (command -v fake-hwclock >/dev/null 2>&1) ; then
  mount -o remount,rw /
  fake-hwclock save
  mount -o remount,ro /

Edit the the file /etc/ntp.conf  to set redirect driftfile  to writable zone /var/tmp . My file was like this

# /etc/ntp.conf, configuration for ntpd; see ntp.conf(5) for help

driftfile /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift

I changed to this, thanks to Gregor for the tip.

# /etc/ntp.conf, configuration for ntpd; see ntp.conf(5) for help

driftfile /var/tmp/ntp.drift


Remove some startup scripts

insserv -r bootlogs; insserv -r console-setup

Now time to tell the mounted filesystem that we’re in read-only mode

Add “,ro” flag to both block devices in


to tell the system to mount them read-only:

edit the file


mine was :

proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
/dev/mmcblk0p1  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       2
/dev/mmcblk0p2  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1

And after modifications it is :

proc            /proc           proc    defaults             0       0
/dev/mmcblk0p1  /boot           vfat    defaults,ro          0       2
/dev/mmcblk0p2  /               ext4    defaults,noatime,ro  0       1

# For Debian Jessie 
tmpfs           /tmp            tmpfs   nosuid,nodev         0       0
tmpfs           /var/log        tmpfs   nosuid,nodev         0       0
tmpfs           /var/tmp        tmpfs   nosuid,nodev         0       0

We done, reboot

That’s it, you should now be able to reboot your Pi


If all went fine, it should boot. Well, on mine it rebooted fine and ambilight was still working, then I ssh’ed onto and issued

root@ambilight:~# mount | grep /dev/root
/dev/root on / type ext4 (ro,noatime,data=ordered)

you can see root is ro mode

root@ambilight:~# mount | grep /dev/mmc
/dev/mmcblk0p1 on /boot type vfat (ro,relatime,fmask=0022,dmask=0022,codepage=437,iocharset=ascii,shortname=mixed,errors=remount-ro)

and /boot (fat part of the SD) is also ro mode, great !!!

In case of problem, look at syslog (or logread) and try to find out why. You can try to fix plugging the SD card in a different computer.

Switching from Read-Only mode to Read-Write and vice-versa

Now you’re in read only mode it’s fine and safe, but if you need to install, write or modify files, upgrade, or whatever that need write access, you need to be able to do it, we’ll add this possibility and in visual mode

To set system to Read-Write use

mount -o remount,rw /

and to set it back to Read-Only

mount -o remount,ro /

but I do not remember this tricky syntax and decided to improve things a little. I want to have two simple commands like


for setting mode to read only and


to enable read write mode. I also wanted to know on which mode I am on command prompt.

Add fancy indicating features

Ok for all users just edit the file


and at the end add the following lines

# set variable identifying the filesystem you work in (used in the prompt below)
    fs_mode=$(mount | sed -n -e "s/^\/dev\/.* on \/ .*(\(r[w|o]\).*/\1/p")
    PS1='\[\033[01;32m\]\u@\h${fs_mode:+($fs_mode)}\[\033[00m\]:\[\033[01;34m\]\w\[\033[00m\]\$ '

alias ro='sudo mount -o remount,ro / ; sudo mount -o remount,ro /boot'
alias rw='sudo mount -o remount,rw / ; sudo mount -o remount,rw /boot'

# setup fancy prompt"

Execute this new file and look at the magic, the prompt has also changed and show up file system state

root@ambilight:/var/log# . /etc/bash.bashrc
root@ambilight(rw):/var/log# ro
root@ambilight(ro):/var/log# touch test.txt
touch: cannot touch `test.txt': Read-only file system
root@ambilight(ro):/var/log# rw
root@ambilight(rw):/var/log# touch test.txt
root@ambilight(rw):/var/log# ro

Use logout to save history and force Read-Only mode

To be sure to avoid setting back to Read-Only at logout, add the following line to the file


(may be you need to create it)

mount -o remount,ro /
mount -o remount,ro /boot

If you want to have your bash history file saved and last known good date, also, put these lines instead

mount -o remount,rw /
history -a
fake-hwclock save
mount -o remount,ro /
mount -o remount,ro /boot

Of course you can also enhance the system like changing colors and/or set file system to read only after a certain amount of time. It’s just the way I’m using it.

PS : depending on your configuration, you may have set prompt elsewhere after /etc/bash.bashrc is executed (~/.bashrc for example), that would cause overriding the settings of /etc/bash.bashrc. So if it does not work, test by putting the lines at the end of the user ~/.bashrc  profile file (/root/.bashrc for root)

Bonus : health check using Watchdog

If you follow my blog, you probably know that I’m using micro-controller day by day. I love the watchdog feature they have and reading original K3A post, I saw we can do the same on Raspberry, so I decided to give it a try of course.

It’s for advanced users, be sure knowing what you do if you don’t want your Pi going into reset loop, most users don’t need this.

Set system to Read-Write before executing these commands, you sure remember this ?


Enable watchdog module :

modprobe bcm2708_wdog; apt-get install watchdog

Edit the file and


add the following lines at the end of the file

watchdog-device  = /dev/watchdog
max-load-15      = 25  
watchdog-timeout = 10

On raspbian before jessie (old system init.d) set the watchdog to start at boot and start it now:

insserv watchdog; /etc/init.d/watchdog start

On Jessie edit the file /lib/systemd/system/watchdog.service  and in section [Install]  add the following


Always on Jessie, enable it by

systemctl enable watchdog

In addition to the watchdog, you should set up reboot after a kernel panic. This is done by editing


. Add this line:

kernel.panic = 10

This will cause to wait 10 seconds after a kernel panic, then automatically safely reboot the box.

Last test and validation

As last operation, set back to Read-Only and reboot the Pi



Has I already said, I followed the original author (K3A) and just added some features I needed. Now that I have one Pi in this mode, I will update all my Pi and may be I need to add some modifications or enhancement not seen yet. If this the case I will update this post, so stay tuned.

If you want to see more precise explanations, I strongly suggest to read the excellent original K3A article located here

Thank’s to Raspbian France for providing this article image.



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